Psychological and legal evidence of the existence of ritual abuse is substantial and rapidly growing.
The psychological literature supports that ritualistic abuse is a real phenomenon that must be correctly assessed and treated (Belitz, & Schacht, 1992; Bernet & chang, 1997; Bloom, 1994; Boat, 1991; Boyd, 1991; Brown, 1994; Clark, 1994; Clay, 1996; Coleman, 1994; Comstock, 1991; Comstock & Vickery, 1992; Cook, 1991; Coons, 1997; Cozolino, 1989, 1990; Crabtree, 1993; deMause, 1994; Driscoll & Wright, 1991; Edwards, 1990; Ehrensaft, 1992; Faller, 1994; Feldman, 1993; Fine, 1989; Finkelhor, Williams, & Burns, 1988; Fraser, 1990, 1991, 1993a, 1993b 1997a, 1997b; Friesen, 1991, 1992, 1993; Gallagher, 2001; Gonzalez, Waterman, Kelly, McCord, & Oliveri, 1993; Golston, 1993; Gonzalez, Waterman, Kelly, McCord, & Oliveri, 1993; Goodman, Quas, Bottoms, Qin, Shaver, Orcutt, & Shapiro, 1997; Goodwin, 1993; Goodwin, 1994; Goodwin, Hill, & Attias, 1990; Gould, 1992, 1995; Gould & Cozolino, 1992; Gould & Graham-Costain, 1994; Gould & Neswald, 1992; Graves, 1989; Greaves, 1992; Groenendijk &van der Hart, 1995; Hammond, 1992; Harvey, 1993; Hendrickson, McCarty & Goodwin, 1990; Hill & Goodwin, 1989; Hornstein, 1991; Hudson, 1990, 1991; Ireland & Ireland, 1994; Jones, 1991; Jonker & Jonker-Bakker, 1991; Jonker & Jonker-Bakker, I., 1997; Kelley, 1989; King & Yorker, 1996; Kinscherff & Barnum, 1992; Kluft, 1988, 1989a,1989b, 1994, 1995; La Fontaine, 1993; Lawrence, Cozolino, & Foy, 1995; Leavitt, 1994; Leavitt & Labott, 1998; Lockwood, 1993; Lloyd, 1992; MacHovec, 1992; Mandell & Schiff, 1993; Mangen, 1992; Mayer, 1991; McCulley, 1994; McFarland & Lockerbie, 1994; McFayden, Hanks, & James, 1993; Moriarty, 1991, 1992; Neswald & Gould, 1993; Neswald, Gould, & Graham-Costain, 1991; Noblitt, 1995; Noblitt & Perskin, 2000; Nurcombe & Unutzer, 1991; Oksana, 1994, 2001; Paley, 1992; Rockwell, 1994, 1995; Rose, 1996; Ross, 1995; Ryder, 1992; Sachs, 1990; Sakheim & Devine, 1992b; Sakheim, 1996; Scott, 1993; Scott, 2001; Sinason, 1994; Sinason, 2005; Smith, C. 1998; Smith, M. 1993; Smith & Pazder, 1981; Snow & Sorenson, 1990; Stafford, 1993; Steele, H., 2003; Steele, K., 1989; Stratford, 1993; Summit, 1994; Tamarkin, 1994a, 1994b; Tate, 1991; Uherek, 1991; Valente, 1992; Van Benschoten, 1990; van der Hart, 1993;Vesper, 1991; Waterman, Kelly, Olivieri, McCord, 1993; Weir & Wheatcroft, 1995; Williams, 1991; Wong & McKeen, 1990; Woodsum, 1998; Young, 1992; Young, 1993; Young, Sachs, Braun, & Watkins, 1991; Young & Young, 1997; Youngson, 1993). (These references are included below. Most are publications in peer-reviewed journals).
A recent review of the empirical evidence of ritual abuse is included in a book by Noblitt and Perskin (Cult and Ritual Abuse, 2000, Chapter 6).
One national survey of 2709 clinical psychologists showed that 30% claimed to have seen at least one case of “ritualistic or religion-based abuse” and 93% of these psychologists believed the harm actually occurred (Goodman, Qin, Bottoms, & Shaver, 1994). Noblitt reports that, “In a survey of the membership of the International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality and Dissociation, [Nancy] Perry concluded that 88% of 1185 respondents reported belief in ritual abuse, involving mind control and programming” (Paper presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, Fort Worth, Texas, March 18, 1998, adapted from Noblitt, 1998; Accessing Dissociated Mental States, referring to Perrys findings published in the International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality and Dissociation Newsletter, 1992, p. 4).
Updates of the empirical evidence of ritual abuse will appear in the soon-to-be-released book, “Ritual Abuse in the Twenty-first Century: Psychological, Forensic, Social and Political Considerations” (2008), edited by James Randall Noblitt, Ph.D. & Pamela Sue Perskin.
Numerous court decisions (criminal, family, juvenile, and civil) have been based on findings of ritual abuse. One list entitled, “The Satanism and Ritual Abuse Archive”, by Diana Napolis, is published on the world-wide web at: http://endritualabuse.org/evidence/satanism-and-ritual-abuse-archive/This archive contains 92 cases as of February 12, 2008. In one notable civil case, the Honorable Warren K. Urbom, Senior United States District Judge, Omaha, Nebraska, awarded a million dollar judgement on February 27, 1999 to Paul Bonacci, based on sexual abuse (including pornography and orgies) and false imprisonment of Bonacci as a child, in the infamous Franklin ritual cult/sex/drug ring case. This case is discussed in depth in John De Camps 1994 book, “The Franklin Cover-Up”. Numerous important cases are still to be added to the archive, including the 2006 criminal conviction of Father Gerald Robinson for the ritualistic murder in 1980 of Sister Margaret Ann Pahl.
An other interesting case involving possible ritual abuse just appeared in the news in January, 2008. Lawrence Douglas Harris, Sr., was charged with first-degree murder of his step-daughters in Sioux City, Iowa. Court documents state that Harris told police he “had been casting a spell that had gone bad, and that the spell could have had severe consequences.” No other detail is available at present.
The post-trial geological survey under the McMartin preschool’s foundation yielded convincing corroboration of the children’s reports of being taken through underground tunnels beneath the school to get to abusive rituals (see: “The Dark Tunnels of McMartin”, Summit, R.C.,http://www.geocities.com/kidhistory/mcmartin.htm ). The media widely portrayed the allegations of ritual abuse at the McMartin preschool as having resulted from therapists and investigators using poor interview techniques with the children. The geological survey argues otherwise.
A good deal more information on ritual abuse would be available if it were not for the secrecy preserved by the organized criminal groups that commit this abuse, the profound fear of disclosure among victims (Fraser; 1997b; Young & Young, 1997), and the abusers’ skilled use of torture to cause their victims to become highly dissociative and generally amnestic for their abuse.
Proponents of the position that memories of ritual abuse are false or grossly exaggerated, e.g., the False Memory Syndrome Foundation, were a strong international political force in suppressing the reality of ritual abuse beginning in the mid-1990’s. They launched an aggressive media campaign and lobbied legislators, asserting their position that individuals reporting ritual abuse were influenced to believe they were ritually abused by negligent or malpracticing psychotherapists and by a social climate of “moral panic” and “mass hysteria”. This led to considerable influence on public opinion and considerable presence in the courts, particularly in malpractice claims against therapists and investigators.
This media campaign and hostile legal climate influenced many law enforcement officials receiving reports of ritual abuse, and many physicians and psychotherapists hearing disclosure of ritual abuse, to be very skeptical of accounts of ritual abuse, and to tend to stigmatize reporting individuals as delusional, schizophrenic, or otherwise seriously mentally ill. Physicians and therapists who believe that their patients have trauma based in ritual abuse are often very guarded about divulging this clinical data, making reports of such abuse to law enforcement and child protection, sharing their findings with their colleagues, and writing about treating trauma from ritual abuse. All of this results in tremendous suppression of this information (Brown, Scheflin, & Hammond, 1998; Coons, 1997; Whitfield, Silberg, & Fink, 2002; Young & Young, 1997). This is the basis for the sharp reduction in publications about ritual abuse in the mid 1990s to the present.
There are recent indications that the tide is beginning to turn. Two professional psychology books that address ritual abuse in depth have just been accepted for publication, and are expected to be released by mid-2008. These are, “Ritual Abuse in the Twenty-first Century: Psychological, Forensic, Social and Political Considerations” (2008), edited by James Randall Noblitt, Ph.D. & Pamela Sue Perskin, Oregon: Robert D. Reed Publishers, and, “Forensic Aspects of Dissociative Identity Disorder” (2008), edited by Adah Sachs and Graeme Galton. London: Karnac Books.
Belitz, J., and Schacht, A. (1992). Satanism as a response to abuse: The dynamics and treatment of satanic involvement in male youths.
Adolescence, 27, 855-872.
Bernet W, Chang DK. (1997). The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations. Journal of Forensic Science, 42(1), 32-38.
Bloom, S.L. (1994) . Hearing the survivors voice: Sundering the wall of denial. Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 461-477.
Boat, B.W. (1991). Caregivers as surrogate therapists in treatment of a ritualistically abused child. In W.N. Friedrich (Ed.) , Casebook of sexual abuse treatment., (pp. 1-26). New York: Norton.
Boyd, A. (1991). Blasphemous rumors: Is Satanic ritual abuse fact or fantasy? An investigation. London: HarperCollins
Brown, D. (1994). Satanic ritual abuse: A therapist’s handbook. Denver, CO: Blue Moon Press.
Brown, D., Scheflin, A.W., & Hammond, D.C. (1998). Memory, trauma treatment, and the law: An essential reference on memory for clinicians, researchers, attorneys, and judges. New York: Norton.
Carlson, E.B., Putnam, F.W., Ross, C.A., Torem, M., Coons, P., Dill, D.L., Loewenstein, R.J., & Braun, B.G. (1993). Validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in screening for multiple personality disorder: A multicenter study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(7), 1030-1036.
Chu, J.A., Frey, L.M., Ganzel, B.L., & Matthews, J.A. (1999). Memories of childhood abuse: Dissociation, amnesia, and corroboration. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(5), 749-755.
Clark, C.M. (1994), Clinical assessment of adolescents involved in Satanism. Adolescence, Summer, XXIV (114), 461-468.
Clay, C. (1996). More Than A Survivor. University of Saskatchewan Press.
Coleman, J. (1994). Presenting features in adult victims of Satanist ritual abuse. Child Abuse Review, 3: 83-92.
Comstock, C. (1991). The inner self helper and concepts of inner guidance: Historical antecedents, its role within dissociation, and clinical utilization. Dissociation, 4(3), 165-177.
Comstock, C.M. & Vickery, D. (1992). The therapist as victim: a preliminary discussion. Dissociation, 5(3), 155-158.
Cook, C. (1991). Understanding ritual Abuse: A study of thirty-three ritual abuse survivors. Treating Abuse Today, 1(4), 14-19.
Coons, P.M. (1997). Satanic ritual abuse: First research and therapeutic implications. In G.A. Fraser (Ed.), The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists (pp. 105-117). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Cozolino, L. J. (1989). The ritual abuse of children: Implications for clinical practice and research. The Journal of Sex Research, 26 (1), 131-138.
Cozolino, L. J. (1990) Ritualistic child abuse, psychopathology, and evil. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 18 (3), 218-227.
Crabtree, A. (1993). Puzzling over possession: Comments on Dissociation articles on possession, Dissociation, 6(4), 254-259.
De Mause (1994). Why cults terrorize and kill children. The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 505-518.
Draijer, N. & Langeland, W. (1999). Childhood trauma and perceived parental dysfunction in the etiology of dissociative symptoms in psychiatric in-patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(3), 379-385.
Driscoll, L. N. & Wright, C. (1991). Survivors of childhood ritual abuse: Multi-generational Satanic cult involvement. Treating Abuse Today, 1(4), 5–13.
Edwards, L. M. (1990). Differentiating between ritual assault and sexual abuse. Journal of Child and Youth Care, 6(4), 67-89.
Ehrensaft, D. (1992). Preschool child sex abuse: The aftermath of the Presidio case. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62(2), 234-244.
Emerson, S., & Syron, Y. (1995). Adolescent Satanism: Rebellion masquerading as religion. Counseling & Values, 39, 145-159.
Evers-Szostak, M. & Sanders, S. (1992). The Children’s Perceptual Alteration Scale (CPAS): A measure of children’s dissociation. Dissociation, 2 (June), 91-98.
Fagan, J. & McMahon, P.P. (1984). Incipient multiple personality in children: Four cases. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(1), 26-36.
Faller, K.C. (1994, Spring). Ritual abuse: A review of research. APSAC Advisor, 7(1), pp. 1, 19-27.
Feldman, G.C. (1993). Lessons in evil, lessons from the light: A true story of Satanic abuse and spiritual healing. New York: Crown Publishers.
Fewster, G. (1990). In the shadow of Satan: The ritual abuse of children. Journal of Child and Youth Care Special Issue. Calgary: University of Calgary Press: Calgary
Fine, C. (1989). Treatment errors and iatrogenesis across therapeutic modalities in MPD and allied dissociative disorders. Dissociation, 2(2), 77-82.
Finkelhor, D., Williams, L. M., & Burns, N. (1988). Nursery Crimes. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Fraser G. A. (1990). Satanic Ritual Abuse: A cause of multiple personality disorder. Journal of Child and Youth Care, Special Issue, 55-65.
Fraser, G (1991). The dissociative table technique: a strategy for working with ego states in dissociative disorders and ego-state therapy, Dissociation, 4(4), 205-213.
Fraser, G. (1993). Special treatment techniques to access the inner personality system of multiple personality disorder patients. Dissociation, 6(2/3), 193-198.
Fraser, G. (1993). Exorcism rituals: effects on multiple personality disorder patients. Dissociation, 6(4), 239-244.
Fraser, G.A. (1997a). The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.
Fraser, G.A. (1997b). Visions of memories: A patient’s visual representation of ritual abuse ceremonies. In G.A. Fraser (Ed.), The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists (pp.183-196). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Friesen, J. G. (1991). Uncovering the Mystery of MPD. San Bernadino, California: Here’s Life Publishing.
Friesen, J. G. (1992). Ego-Dystonic or Ego-Alien: Alternate Personality or Evil Spirit? Journal of Psychology and Theology. 20(3), 197-200.
Friesen, J. G. (1993). More than Survivors: Conversations with Multiple Personality Clients. San Bernadino, California: Here’s Life Publishing.
Gallagher, B. (2001). Assessment and intervention in cases of suspected ritual child sexual abuse. Child Abuse Review, 10, 227-242.
Golston, J. (1993). Ritual abuse: Raising hell in psychotherapy: Creation of cruelty: The political military and multigenerational training of torturers: Violent initiation and the role of traumatic dissociation. Treating Abuse Today, 3(6), 12-19.
Gonzalez, L.S., Waterman, J., Kelly, R.J., McCord, J., & Oliveri, M.K. (1993). Children’s patterns of disclosures and recantations of sexual and ritualistic allegations in psychotherapy. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 281-289.
Goodman, G.S., Qin, J., Bottoms, B.L., & Shaver (1994). Characteristics and sources of allegations of ritualistic child abuse: Final report to the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. [Unpublished manuscript].
Goodman, G. S., Quas, J. A., Bottoms, B. L., Qin, J., Shaver, P. R., Orcutt, H., & Shapiro, C. (1997). Children’s religious knowledge: Implications for understanding satanic ritual abuse allegations. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21(11), 1111-1130.
Goodwin, J. (1993). Sadistic abuse: Definition, recognition, and treatment. Dissociation, 6(2/3), 181-187.
Goodwin, J.M. (1994). Credibility problems in sadistic abuse. The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 479-496.
Goodwin, J, Hill, S. & Attias, R. (1990). Historical and folk techniques of exorcism: applications to the treatment of dissociative disorders. Dissociation, 3(2), 94-101.
Gould, C. (1992). Diagnosis and treatment of ritually abused children. In D.K. Sakheim & S.E. Devine (Eds.), Out of darkness: Exploring Satanism and ritual abuse (pp. 207-248). New York: Lexington Books.
Gould, C. (1995). Denying ritual abuse of children. Journal of Psychohistory, 22(3), 329-339.
Gould, C., & Cozolino, L. (1992). Ritual abuse, multiplicity, and mind-control. Journal of Psychology and Theology. 20(3): 194-196.
Gould, C. & Graham-Costain, V. (1994). Play therapy with ritually abused children. Treating Abuse Today, 4(2), 4-1; 4(3), 14-19.
Gould, C. & Neswald, D. (1992). Basic treatment and program neutralization strategies for adult MPD survivors of satanic ritual abuse. Treating Abuse Today, 2(3), 5–10.
Graves, S.M. (1989). Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms at a community mental health center. Dissociation, 2(3), 119-127.
Greaves, G. B. (1992). Alternative hypotheses regarding claims of satanic cult activity. A critical analysis. In D. K. Sakheim, & S. F. Devine, (Eds.), Out of Darkness: Exploring Satanism and Ritual Abuse.(pp. 45-72). New York: Lexington Books.
Groenendijk, I. & van der Hart, O. (1995). Treatment of DID and DDNOS patients in a regional institute for ambulatory mental health care in the Netherlands: a survey. Dissociation, 8(2), 73-83.
Hammond, D. C. (1992). Hypnosis in MPD: Ritual abuse (also known as The Greenbaum speech), Fourth Annual Eastern Regional Conference on Abuse and Multiple Personality. Downloaded on 2-21-2003:http://home.att.net/~mcra/green.htm
Harvey, S. (1993). Ann: Dynamic play therapy with ritual abuse. In T.
Kottman & C. Schaefer, C. (Eds.). Play therapy in action: A casebook for practitioners (pp. 371-415). Northvale, New Jersey: Aronson..
Hassan, S. (1990). Combating cult mind control. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press.
Hassan, S. (2000). Releasing the bonds: Empowering people to think for themselves. Danbury, CT : Aitan Publishing.
Hendrickson, K. M., McCarty, T., & Goodwin, J. (1990). Animal alters: case reports, Dissociation, 3(4), 218-221.
Hersha, L., Hersha, C., Griffis, D., & Schwarz, T. (2001). Secret weapons: Two sisters terrifying true story of sex, spies, and sabotage. Far Hills, New Jersey: New Horizon Press.
Hill, S. & Goodwin, J. (1989) Satanism; Similarities between patient accounts and pre-Inquisition historical sources. Dissociation, 2(1), 39-44.
Hornstein, N.L. (1993). Recognition and differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders in children and adolescents. Dissociation, 6(2/3), 136-144.
Hudson, P.S. (1990). Ritual child abuse: A survey of symptoms and allegations. Special issue: In the shadow of Satan: The ritual abuse of children. Journal of Child and Youth Care, 27-54.
Hudson, P.S. (1991). Ritual child abuse: discovery, diagnosis and treatment. Saratoga, CA: R & E Publishers.
Ireland, S.J. & Ireland, M..J. (1994). A case history of family and cult abuse. The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 417-428.
Johnson, M. (1994). Fear and power: From naivete to a believer in cult abuse. The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 435-441.
Jones, D.P.H. (1991). Ritualism and child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 163-170.
Jonker, F. & Jonker-Bakker, P. (1991). Experiences with ritualistic child sexual abuse: A case study from the Netherlands. Child Abuse andNeglect, 15(3), 191-196.
Jonker, F; Jonker-Bakker, I. (1997). Effects of Ritual Abuse: The results of three surveys in the Netherlands. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21(6) 541-556
Kelley, S.J. (1989). Stress responses of children to sexual abuse and ritualistic abuse in day-care centers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4(4), 501-513.
King, G. F.; Yorker, B. (1996). Case studies of children presenting with a history of ritualistic abuse. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 9(2), pp.18-26.
Kinscherff, R. & Barnum, R (1992). Child forensic evaluation and claims of ritual abuse or Satanic cult activity: A critical analysis. In D.K. &
S.E. Devine (Eds.), Out of Darkness: Exploring Satanism and ritual abuse. 73-107. New York, NY: Lexington Books.
Kluft, R.P. (1988). The phenomenology and treatment of extremely complex multiple personality disorder. Dissociation, 1(4), 47-58.
Kluft, R.P. (1989a). Iatrogenic creation of new alter personalities. Dissociation, 2(2), 83-91.
Kluft, R. P. (1989b). Editorial : Reflections on allegation of ritual abuse. Dissociation, 2(4), 191-193.
Kluft, R.P. (1994). Treatment trajectories in multiple personality disorder. Dissociation, 7(1), 63-76.
Kluft, R. P. (1995). Six completed suicides in dissociative identity disorder patients: Clinical observations, Dissociation, 8(2), 104-111.
La Fontaine, J.S. (1993). Defining organized sexual abuse. Child Abuse Review, 2, 223-231.
Lawrence, K.J., Cozolino, L., & Foy, D.W. (1995). Psychological sequelae in adult females reporting childhood ritualistic abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19(8), 975-84.
Leavitt, F. (1994). Clinical correlates of alleged Satanic abuse and less controversial sexual molestation. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18(4), 387-392.
Leavitt F, & Labott, S. M.(1998). Revision of the Word Association Test for assessing associations of patients reporting Satanic ritual abuse in childhood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(7), 933-943.
Lloyd, D. W. (1992). Ritual child abuse: Definitions and assumptions. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 1(3), 1-14.
Lockwood, C. (1993) Other altars: Roots and realities of cultic and Satanic ritual abuse and multiple personality disorder. Minneapolis, MN: Compcare.
Lotto, D. (1994). On witches and witch hunts: Ritual and Satanic cult abuse. The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 373-396.
Luxenberg, T., Spinazzola, J., &. van der Kolk, B. (2001). Complex trauma and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS): Diagnosis, part one: Assessment. Directions in Psychiatry (21), Downloaded on 8-24-2003:http://www.traumacenter.org/webarticles.html
Luxenberg, T., Spinazzola, J., Hidalgo, J., Hunt, C., &. van der Kolk, B. (2001), Complex trauma and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) Diagnosis, part two: Treatment. Directions in Psychiatry (21), Downloaded on 8-24-2003: http://www.traumacenter.org/webarticles.html
Macfarland, R.B.,& Lockerbie, G. (1994). Difficulties in treating ritually abused children. Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 429-434.
Mandell, H. E. & Schiff, M.(1993). Schizophrenia or terrifying reality? A supervisor’s dilemma. The Clinical Supervisor, 11(20, 127-133.
Mangen, R. (1992). Psychological testing and ritual abuse. In D.K. Sakheim & S.E. Devine (Eds.), Out of darkness: Exploring Satanism and ritual abuse (pp. 147-173). New York: Lexington.
Mayer, R.S. (1991). Satan’s Children: Case Studies in Multiple Personality. New York: Putnam.
MacHovec, F. (1992) Cults: Forensics and therapeutic aspects. Behavior Sciences and the Law, 10, 31-37.
McCulley, D. (1994). Satanic ritual abuse: A question of memory. Psychology and Theology, 22(3), 167-172.
McFadyen, A., Hanks, H., & James, C. (1993) Ritual abuse: A definition. Child Abuse Review, 2, 35-41.
Moriarty, A. R., (1991) Adolescent Satanic cult dabblers: A differential diagnosis. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 13(3), pp. 393–404.
Moriarty, A. (1992) The psychology of adolescent Satanism: A guide for parents, counselors, clergy, and teachers. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood.
Neswald, D., & Gould, C. (1993). Basic treatment and program neutralization strategies for adult MPD Survivors of Satanic ritual abuse. Treating Abuse Today, 4 (3), 14-19.
Neswald, D., Gould, C., & Graham-Costain, V. (1991).Common programs observed in survivors of Satanic ritual abuse. The California Therapist, 3 (5), 47 50.
Noblitt, J.R. (1995). Psychometric measures of trauma among psychiatric patients reporting ritual abuse. Psychological Reports, 77(3), 743-747.
Noblitt,, J.R. & Perskin, P. (2000). Cult and ritual Abuse: Its history, anthropology, and recent discovery in contemporary America; Revised edition. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Nurcombe, B & Unutzer, J (1991). The ritual abuse of children: clinical features and diagnostic reasoning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(2), 272-276.
Ogawa, J.R., Sroufe, A., Weinfield, N.S., Carlson, E.A., & Egeland, B. (1997). Development and the fragmented self: Longitudinal study of dissociative symptomatology in a nonclinical sample. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 855-879.
Oksana, C. (1994, revised 2001) Safe passage to healing: A guide for survivors of ritual abuse. NY: Harper Perennial.
Paley, K.S. (1992). Dream wars: a case study of a woman with multiple personality disorder. Dissociation, 5(2), 111-116.
Pelcovitz D, van der Kolk BA, Roth S, Mandel, F., Kaplan, S., &
Pesicket, P. (1997). Development of a criteria set and a structured interview for disorder of extreme stress (SIDES). Journal of Traumatic Stress,10(1):316.
Perlman, S. D. (1995). One analyst’s journey into darkness: Countertransference resistance to recognizing sexual abuse, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 23(1), 137-51.
Peterson, G. (1991). Children coping with trauma: Diagnosis of “dissociation identity disorder”. Dissociation Progress in the Dissociative Disorders, 4(3), 152-164.
Peterson, G. (1996). Treatment of early onset. In J.L. Spira & I.D. Yalom (Eds.). Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder (pp. 135-181). San Francisco: Josey-Bass.
Putnam, F.W. (1997). Dissociation in children and adolescents: A developmental perspective. New York: Guilford Press.
Putnam, F.W., Helmers, K., Horowitz, L.A., & Trickett, P.K. (1995). Hypnotizability and dissociativity in sexually abused girls. Child Abuse and Neglect. 19(5), 645-655.
Pynoos, R.S., Steinberg, A.M., & Goenjian, A. (1996). Traumatic stress in childhood and adolescence: Recent developments and current controversies. In B.A. van der Kolk, A.C. McFarlane, & L. Weisaeth (Eds.). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society (pp 331-358). New York: Guilford Press.
Read, J., Perry, B., Moskowitz, A. & Connolly, J. (2001). The contribution of early traumatic events to schizophrenia in some patients: A traumagenic neurodevelopmental model. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 64 (4). Downloaded on 6-7-2003: http://www.childtrauma.org/CTAMATERIALS/Psychiatry_02.pdf
Rockwell, R.B. (1994). One psychiatrists view of Satanic ritual abuse. The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 443-460.
Rockwell, R.B. (1995). Insidious deception. The Journal of Psychohistory, 22(3), 312-328.
Rose, E. (1996). Reaching for the Light: A Guide for Ritual Abuse Survivors and Their Therapists. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press.
Ross, C.A. (1989). Multiple personality disorder: Diagnosis, clinical features, and treatment. New York: Wiley.
Ross, C.A. (1995). Satanic ritual abuse: Principles of treatment. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Rutz, C. (2001). A nation betrayed: The chilling and true story of secret cold war experiments performed on our children and other innocent people. Grass Lake, MI: Fidelity Publishing.
Ryder, D. (1992). Breaking the circle of Satanic ritual abuse: Recognizing and recovering from the hidden trauma. Minneapolis, MN: CompCare Publishers.
Sachs, R.G. (1990). The role of sex and pregnancy in Satanic cults. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 5 (2), 105-114
Sakheim, D.K. (1996). Clinical aspects of sadistic ritual abuse. In L.K. Michelson & W.J. Ray (Eds), Handbook of dissociation: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives, (pp. 569-594). New York: Plenum Press.
Sakheim, D.K., & Devine, S.E. (Eds.) (1992). Out of darkness: Exploring Satanism and ritual abuse. New York: Lexington.
Scott, S. (1993). Beyond belief: Beyond help? Child Abuse Review, 2, 243-250.
Scott, S. (2001). The Politics and Experience of Ritual Abuse: Beyond Disbelief. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Sinason, V. (1994). Treating survivors of satanic abuse. London, and NY, NY: Routledge.
Sinason, V. (2005). Just like others, Satanists abuse. Community Care, 1571, 18-18.
Smith, C. (1998). The Magic Castle. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Smith, M. (1993). Ritual Abuse: What it is, why it happens, how to help. San Francisco: Harper.
Smith, M., & Pazder, L. (1981). Michelle Remembers. New York: Pocket Books.
Smith, M.R. (1992). A reply to Ganaway: the problem of using screen memories as an explanatory device in accounts of ritual abuse, Dissociation, 5(2), 117-119.
Snow B. & Sorensen (1990). Ritualistic child abuse in a neighborhood setting. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5(4), 474-487.
Stafford, L. L. (1993). Dissociation and multiple personality disorder: A challenge for psychosocial nurses. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 31(1), 15-20.
Steele, K. H. (1989). A model for abreaction with MPD and other dissociative disorders. Dissociation, 2(2/3), 151-159.
Steele, H. (2003). Unrelenting catastrophic trauma within the family: When every secure base is abusive. Attachment & Human Development, 5(4), 353-366.
Stratford, L. (1993). Satan’s Underground. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing.
Summit, R.C. (1994). The dark tunnels of McMartin. The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 397-416.
Tamarkin, C. (1994a). Investigative Issues in Ritual Abuse Cases, Part I. Treating Abuse Today, 4 (4): 14-23.
Tamarkin, C. (1994b). Investigative Issues in Ritual Abuse Cases, Part II. Treating Abuse Today, 4 (5): 5-9.
Tate, T. (1991). Children for the devil: Ritual abuse and Satanic crime. London: Methuen.
Uherek, A.M. (1991). Treatment of a ritually abused preschooler. In W.N. Friedrich (Ed.) Casebook of sexual abuse treatment. (pp. 70-92). New York: Norton.
Valente SM. (1992) The challenge of ritualistic child abuse. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, 5(2):37-46.
Van der Hart, O. (1993). Multiple personality disorder in Europe: Impressions. Dissociation, 6(2/3), 102-118.
van der Kolk, B.A., McFarlane, A.C., & Weisaeth, L. (Eds.) (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford.
van der Kolk B.A., Roth S., Pelcovitz D., Mandel F. (1993). Complex PTSD: Results of the PTSD field trial for DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Van Benschoten, S.C. (1990). Multiple Personality Disorder and Satanic ritual abuse: The Issue of credibility, Dissociation, 3(1), 22-30.
Vesper, J.H. (1991). The use of healing ceremonies in the treatment of multiple personality disorder. Dissociation, 4(2), 109-114.
Waterman, J., Kelly, R.J., Olivieri, M.K., McCord, J. (1993). Beyond the playground walls: Sexual abuse in preschools. New York: Guilford.
Weir, I.K. & Wheatcroft, M.S. (1995). Allegations of children’s involvement in ritual sexual abuse: Clinical experience of 20 cases. Child abuse and Neglect, 19(4), 491-505.
Whitfield, C.L., Silberg, J., & Fink, P.J. (Eds.) (2002). Misinformation concerning child sexual abuse and adult survivors. New York: Haworth Press.
Williams, M.B (1991). Clinical work with families of MPD patients: assessment and issues for practice, Dissociation, 4(2), 92-98.
Wong, B., & McKeen, J. (1990). A case of multiple life-threatening illnesses related to early ritual abuse. Special Issue: In the shadow of Satan: The ritual abuse of children. Journal of Child and Youth Care, 1-26.
Woodsum, G.M. (1998). The Ultimate Challenge: A Revolutionary, Sane and Sensible Response to Ritualistic and Cult-Related Abuse. WY: Action Resources International Young, W.C. (1992). Recognition and treatment of survivors reporting ritual abuse. In D.K. Sakheim & S.E. Devine (Eds.), Out of darkness: Exploring Satanism and ritual abuse (pp. 249-278). New York: Lexington.
Young, W. C. (1993). Sadistic ritual abuse. An overview in detection and management. Primary Care, 20(2), 447-58.
Young, W.C., Sachs, R.G., Braun, B.G., & Watkins, R.T. (1991). Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical syndrome. Report of 37 cases. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 181-189.
Young, W.C. & Young, L.J. (1997). Recognition and special treatment issues in patients reporting childhood sadistic ritual abuse. In G.A. Fraser (Ed.), The dilemma of ritual abuse: Cautions and guides for therapists (pp. 65-103). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Youngson, S.C. (1993). Ritual abuse: Consequences fro professionals. Child Abuse Review, 2, 251-262.